September 2007, Vol. 19, No.9
Making Every Drop Matter
What is the most recycled product worldwide? It’s not plastic, aluminum, glass, or paper. It’s water. Cities upstream in the watershed withdraw it, use it, and put it back. Even though thousands of rivers flow and countless lakes are filled, water is fast becoming a precious commodity. As populations grow, so do the stresses on drinking water supplies and wastewater treatment plants.
But using highly treated wastewater effluent for some tasks can help to alleviate the strain on water supplies and give wastewater treatment plants other options for effluent disposal. To introduce more people to these advantages and educate them about the workings of a reuse program from conception through delivery, WEFTEC®.07 includes a focus area for Water Reclamation and Reuse. This focus area, consisting of two full-day workshops and 10 technical sessions, includes more than 50 presentations on reuse opportunities, techniques, and experiences.
Reasons for Reuse
The most common uses for reuse water are landscape irrigation, crop irrigation, and cooling towers, according to Don Vandertulip, a principal engineer at Kimley–Horn and Associates Inc. (San Antonio) and chairman of Workshop 116, “Fundamentals of Water Reuse: Getting Started.” Increased demand due to population growth, especially in areas with limited freshwater supplies, often spurs water reuse projects, he said.
For example, Session 94, “Sustainable Water Resources — Lessons Learned,” includes a presentation on how reuse is literally being built into a new housing development in the emirate of Dubai. The development will serve 300,000 people and use recycled water for cooling-system purposes, followed by landscape irrigation. Water from the main irrigation line also will be used for toilet flushing for all of the apartments.
And in Hawaii, the County of Maui recycles about 4.5 million m3 (1.2 billion gal) of water each year. “Maui’s freshwater resources are limited, and recycled water is becoming a very important resource,” said Steve Parabicoli, the county’s water recycling program coordinator. Developers are now funding expansions to our system to gain access to the recycled water to irrigate their properties.” Parabicoli will present his paper, “Maui’s Growing Water Reuse Experience,” at Session 94.
Economics also play a large part in the decision to reuse. Application of the appropriate quality water for nonpotable water uses can help conserve community resources, delay in expanding water treatment plants, and extend the life of existing water distribution systems, Vandertulip said. Moreover, it can delay or eliminate the need to seek out new sources of water as demand increases, which can save customers money.
On Maui, the county sets recycled water rates lower than other sources of water typically used by customers to create a financial incentive for reuse, Parabicoli explained. In 2006, Maui contractors used about 160,000 m3 (42 million gal) of recycled water (about 3.5% of the total recycled water used) for dust control and other construction activities, he said. Now, this figure is increasing because the Maui Department of Water Supply is limiting the use of potable water for construction.
In addition, to ensure supply and for economic reasons, effluent management and environmental sustainability are also driving reuse, according to Stephanie Hughes, a project manager at RMC Water and Environment (San Jose, Calif.) and a WEFTEC presenter. She will present her paper, “Lessons in Recycled Water Management,” at Session 94.
In fact, sustainable effluent management is what initially led Maui to begin its reuse program in the early 1990s. The county wastewater treatment plants use injection wells to dispose of its effluent, and the concern was — and still is — that the nutrients in the effluent cause algal blooms in Maui’s coastal waters, Parabicoli explained.
Selling the Idea
Once the need for water reuse is clear, the next task is to convince customers that reuse is the right option. Engaging in conversations with stakeholders, including regulatory agencies, is essential, Hughes said. It is important to develop a management plan that enables you to take initial permitting and design steps while concurrently engaging early with stakeholders to discuss drivers and benefits, she said.
The most common objection to reuse programs is the fear that the water is raw sewage, Vandertulip said. In fact, reclaimed water is highly treated and often indistinguishable visually from potable water, he said.
The question is often asked, How safe is reclaimed water?
“Safe is relative,” Vandertulip said. “Many reclaimed waters are of much higher quality than raw surface water from lakes or streams. In many cases, reclaimed water is of higher quality than drinking water in developing countries.” Of course, he added, users should not consider reclaimed water as a drinking water supply without further water treatment processing.
“It wasn’t that difficult to get customers interested in reusing recycled water [in Maui],” Parabicoli said. “We have a very proactive public education and outreach program that has been instrumental in the success of our program. … In general, most people hear about our water supply challenges on Maui and believe that water reuse makes sense.”
A strong leader is also essential to a successful program, Hughes said. She also advised using established resources on reuse to gather information. Specifically, she recommended joining the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.) and the WateReuse Association (Alexandria) to seek advice from peers and garner an understanding of local issues.
After a water reuse program has received the green light, the challenge lies in deciding what processes to use to treat the water before reuse and how to deliver the water to users. Disinfection is perhaps the most important aspect of the reclamation process. Workshop 114, “Reclaimed Water UV [Ultraviolet] Disinfection,” will discuss in detail concerns about toxicity and disinfection byproduct formation from chlorination, as well as new information about the shortcomings of chlorine and chloramine disinfection. The workshop will provide newcomers with a thorough primer in UV light while giving experienced engineers and operators the latest information.
On the other hand, Session 33, “Trends in Reclaimed Water Disinfection,” will cover chlorine, UV, and ozone disinfection, as well as membrane processes. Session 93, “Reclaimed Water Membrane Concentrates and AWT [Advanced Water Treatment],” will discuss membrane applications.
Other sessions in the Water Reclamation and Reuse focus area will concentrate on reclaimed water distribution and storage (Session 34), sustainability indicators (Session 36), groundwater and surface water issues (Session 58), international perspectives (sessions 11 and 111), and innovative applications (sessions 76 and 110).
Just as all water is connected, all water topics are also connected. In addition to the presentations designated in the Water Reclamation and Reuse focus area, related information can be found in the focus areas for Water Supply and Management; Water Quality, Groundwater, and Watershed Management; Disinfection; Membrane Technologies; Global Perspectives; and Sustainability and Energy Efficiency.
— Steve Spicer
Steve Spicer, WE&T
From Wind Power to Reuse: Sustainability at WEFTEC.07
Meghan H. Oliver
Sustainability is not just a buzzword anymore. Sustainability — including energy management and recovery, green technologies, and reuse — is now part of mainstream ideology and has become an integral factor in implementing water and wastewater treatment processes. WEFTEC®.07 provides several technical sessions and an in-depth workshop covering this topic from all angles.
Alternative Power Sources
Technical Session 59, “Green Power, Renewable Energy Options for Water and Wastewater Utilities,” will provide an overview of some innovative yet practical solutions for going green. James Wheeler, senior environmental engineer for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, will moderate the session. One presenter will discuss wind power as an option for water treatment. Wheeler said that wind power has been a source of power in Europe for years and now is catching on in the United States.
“Wind power is a viable alternative for supplemental power for both water and wastewater utilities,” Wheeler explained in an e-mail. “Today 10% of California’s energy is generated by wind power. The 40-mgd [151,400-m3/d] wastewater treatment facility in Atlantic City, N.J., supplements its energy needs using wind turbines.”
Wheeler explained that while energy production will vary with daily wind speed, “on days when wind speeds exceed 12 mph [19 km/h], the turbines generate enough energy to satisfy the needs of the entire [Atlantic City] treatment facility, although the energy is exported to the local electric grid.”
That’s not to say that on calm, windless days, there’s an energy issue. “During times when the windmills are not at peak capacity, the utility can use its energy credits to buy electricity from the local power grid,” Wheeler said. “At this plant, wind-generated electricity costs $0.79 per kWh delivered for the next 20 years, while [the] current electrical grid process is $0.12 per kWh delivered and rising. Estimated cost savings for the utility are $350,000 per year.”
However, as with many innovative technologies, there are challenges.
“While wind power generates no air or water pollution, its major drawback is its reliability,” Wheeler said. “Since the wind generator cannot operate all the time, some storage, usually battery back-up, must be provided. Another concern is the impact on migrating birds in coastal areas.”
Tim Schmitt, senior environmental scientist for environmental science and engineering firm Limno-Tech (Ann Arbor, Mich.), who will be assisting Wheeler in moderating Session 59, said aesthetics is another issue with wind power. “There’s also been a lot of questions aesthetically about where you want to locate these generators and how it might look on the landscape,” he said.
Another topic at Session 59 is biogas-fueled power. Biogas, produced by the anaerobic decomposition of organic mater found in wastewater, has its pros and cons.
“Biogas is an innovative, renewable, green energy source of fuel that can be converted into energy,” Wheeler said. “Digesters require continuous monitoring and management to maximize gas production and gas quality.” Smaller plants, he explained, may not have operators available for or trained in this type of monitoring. “Since gas production may not meet peak energy demands, some type of gas storage may be necessary if the gas is used onsite,” he said. “If the gas is to be sold to a local gas utility, the biogas must be cleaned of impurities. Air emissions associated with [it] may also be a concern.”
Schmitt added that gas storage also poses a security risk for plants. “Gas itself is hazardous, so there are a lot more concerns in the current climate than there have been in the past,” he said, acknowledging that many plants have undergone security upgrades in recent years.
While implementing more sustainable practices may be catching on throughout the water and wastewater community, Schmitt, who is moderating Session 113 (“Energy Conservation and Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities”), said an issue instrumental to sustainability is securing the public’s understanding and support.
“While there are certainly some innovative approaches [to sustainable practices] out there, I think that it can be difficult to sell these types of changes to the public if they involve rate hikes, certainly at this point when we’re all doing belt-tightening,” Schmitt said. “I think there really needs to be focus on good financial analysis to accompany any sort of sustainability discussion. While sustainability hits home with a number of people, it needs to be accompanied by this financial analysis to show people how sustainability goes hand in hand with eventual cost reductions.”
Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Technical Session 18, “Water Environment Initiatives Related to Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions,” will examine what specific cities and nations are doing to reduce greenhouse gases from their wastewater treatment plants. Daniel Nolasco, founding partner and president of Nolasco & Associates (Buenos Aires, Argentina), will moderate the session. Nolasco said in an e-mail that climate change will be felt worldwide and may be especially devastating for developing countries. A paper to be presented at Session 18, “Carbon Finance and Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries,” will address this issue.
“Both developing and developed countries will suffer the consequences of climate change; flooding, drought, ocean water levels will affect them both,” Nolasco said. “Though many believe the impact on people living in developing countries will be worse, due to their vulnerability and the lack of adaptation capabilities. Adaptation in this context refers to modifying our infrastructure so that it will function in spite of climate change effects.”
“Mitigation of climate change causes, i.e., reducing [greenhouse] gases that generate climate change, is the other side of the coin,” Nolasco added.
Nolasco explained that carbon financing, which involves developed countries purchasing reductions achieved in developing countries, benefits all involved.
“Developed countries gain from this exchange, since achieving those reductions at home would represent higher costs per ton reduced,” Nolasco said. “This is mainly because developed countries have already in place tough regulations in terms of emissions, and any further reduction requires high investment. Meanwhile, developing countries gain at receiving funds through the purchase of their certified emission reductions. These funds can be used in sustainable development.”
Another paper in Session 18 is titled, “Greenhouse Gas Mitigation: Policy and Regulatory Implications for Water and Wastewater Management.” Nolasco, who is from Argentina, addressed the procedures for reducing gases in Latin America, explaining that the region has “no major regulations in terms of GHG [greenhouse gas emissions] in wastewater treatment plants” but that this absence of regulations is “compensated by a growing interest in achieving GHG reductions and certifying those reductions so that they can be sold to developed countries trying to meet Kyoto [Protocol] reductions.”
Nolasco said the experience of reducing greenhouse gases via policy and regulations in the United States and Canada is “highly valuable to this transition period in Latin America,” when “countries like Chile, Mexico, and Brazil are making considerable progress in wastewater treatment and are introducing measures to reduce GHG emissions.”
Reclaimed Water: A Paradigm Shift
At Technical Session 36, “Reclaimed Water: Changing the Paradigm for Sustainable Source Management,” Graham Symmonds, chief technical officer and senior vice president of regulatory affairs and compliance for Global Water Resources (Phoenix), will present a paper on reclaimed water — yet another hot topic in sustainability.
Symmonds said his presentation focuses on the need to shift and rethink the paradigm for sustainable resource management, taking reclaimed water from a more focused corporate allocation and spreading its reach to individuals’ homes.
“It’s a little bit of a shift,” Symmonds said. “A lot of recycling initiatives have been achieved on a small scale — like industrial buildings, partial buildings, or some hotels — but we’re moving toward taking recycled water to your generic residential customer.”
Symmonds explained that there is great potential in moving recycled water from its traditional uses, such as in washing machines and moving waste away from homes via toilets, and switching the water source for those functions to nonpotable water.
“Most of the water that people bring into their homes is really used as a mechanism to transport waste away from home or as irrigation water,” Symmonds said. “Both of those types of uses do not warrant highly treated potable water. ... They could use highly treated recycled water to achieve that. We’re on the cutting edge of deploying recycled water infrastructure to, over time, take over those nonpotable uses to convert them from potable to recycled water.”
In Arizona, where Symmonds is based, “water is king,” he said. There is great opportunity for growth throughout Arizona, he said, but it is “limited by the availability of good, potable water resources. It’s imperative that we remove our total dependence on groundwater and surface water in Arizona and augment those sources with recycled water.”
In the city of Maricopa, Ariz., a new development is under construction that will have two taps in each home — one for potable water, and one for recycled water. “It certainly does represent the future,” Symmonds said. “It will be the first dual plumbed subdivision in the state.”
But it’s not just the arid southwestern United States that needs to be thinking about recycled water in homes.
“Despite the fact that some places might think that they have a lot of water availability, the overall trend is that water resources are becoming scarcer,” Symmonds said. He explained that as regulations for potable water become more stringent and complex, it makes sense to use highly treated water that may, for example, undergo extensive treatment to remove certain contaminants, solely for drinking.
“It makes a lot more sense to use recycled water [for nonpotable uses] and put extra money into capital infrastructure, instead of cap infrastructure and O&M [operations and maintenance] costs. The cost of doing that pales in comparison to providing treatment to all that water [used in nonpotable instances].”
Leading-Edge Insights on Energy
WEFTEC.07 also will feature a workshop dedicated to sustainability issues and how the recent rise in energy prices is prompting some states to consider policies to avoid dependence on foreign oil and become more energy-efficient. Workshop 103, “Sustainable Energy Management Approaches in Wastewater Treatment Facilities,” will be presented by the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.) and the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF; Alexandria).
Amit Pramanik, senior program director for WERF’s wastewater treatment and reuse program, is co-chairing the workshop. He said that while Europe and Australia are being very progressive in reducing greenhouse gases and becoming more energy-efficient at water and wastewater facilities, the United States is lagging behind.
“There are a few utilities in U.S. that are progressive and beginning to look at treatment holistically — some in California and in New York are beginning to tackle those issues,” Pramanik said. “They do need a little bit of an outside push here in the U.S., primarily because wastewater and water plants do not charge consumers for the full rate of producing the water and treatment.”
Pramanik said the future will hold change for utilities in the United States, as prices for services rendered will have to go up to compensate for technology changes and innovations.
“WERF recognizes [the need for change due to global warming], and our subscribers recognized this a couple of years ago with the energy crisis in California,” Pramanik said. “Costs have more than doubled for many of the plants there. Some were proactive and were able to lock into lower rates. It’s hitting them.”
In addition to presenting case studies that exemplify ways in which plants planned and implemented successful energy strategies, a panel discussion on the new WERF initiative, the optimization of wastewater and solids operation (OSWO), will conclude the workshop.
OSWO looks at what is at the forefront of the minds of those in the water and wastewater professions.
“Back in 2005, WERF reorganized our programs into program-directed research,” Pramanik explained. “Six areas were identified, including wastewater treatment and reuse, solids treatment, and the like. We asked our subscribers to identify within each of these program areas what were the key challenges, what was keeping operators, managers, design engineers, and others in our field … awake at night. Energy issues came up as the top issue.”
WERF then solicited proposals asking members to look at how those in the field can reduce the environmental footprint of a wastewater facility and overall reduce the environmental impact of the greenhouse gases. WERF also asked that proposals examine what must happen in the short term to reduce energy costs so that plants can operate at lower costs and maximize resources, Pramanik explained.
The workshop will also include a multitude of speakers presenting from the city of Baltimore, the California Energy Commission, the University of California at Los Angeles, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority — just to name a few.
“This is a forward-looking area for us,” Pramanik said of energy management. “I’m very excited about this. There are a lot of initiatives going on in Europe and in the U.S. It’s a win–win [situation] for everybody.”
— Meghan H. Oliver, WE&T
WEFTEC.07 Sessions on Sustainability
Workshop 103: “Sustainable Energy Management Approaches in Wastewater Treatment Facilities” — Sunday, Oct. 14, 8:30 a.m.–5 p.m.
Technical Session 18: “Water Environment Initiatives Related to Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Part 1” — Monday, Oct. 15, 8:30 a.m.–12 p.m.
Technical Session 36: “Sustainability Indicators and Tradeoff Strategies” — Monday, Oct. 15, 1:30–5 p.m.
Technical Session 39: “Water Environment Initiatives Related to Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Part 2” — Monday, Oct. 15, 1:30–5 p.m.
Technical Session 59: “Green Power: Renewable Energy Options for Water and Wastewater Utilities” — Tuesday, Oct. 16, 8:30 a.m.–12 p.m.
Technical Session 78: “Case Studies in Applying New Strategies to Sustainability” — Tuesday, Oct. 16, 1:30–5 p.m.
Technical Session 113: “Energy Conservation and Management for Water and Wastewater Utilities” — Wednesday, Oct. 17, 1:30–5 p.m.
Technical Session 114: “International Approaches to Sustainability” — Wednesday, Oct. 17, 1:30–5 p.m.
Mghan H. Oliver, WE&T
CReWSers Again Looking To Defend Ops Challenge Crown
Two-time champions go for the ‘three-peat’ in San Diego
The wastewater treatment industry’s premier operations and maintenance competition, Operations Challenge, will take center stage Tuesday, Oct. 16, at WEFTEC®.07 at the San Diego Convention Center. This year’s competition marks the 20th year of the event, which began as a three-person ad hoc committee formed by Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) Past President Al Goodman.
The competition has grown in its 20 years, and at press time this year’s event was expecting 40 teams competing in two divisions. When Operations Challenge was created, the founders had three goals in mind, Goodman said. They wanted the competition to demonstrate the skills and abilities of operators, be enjoyable for the competitors, and be a challenge that features the “best of the best.”
Despite some early hiccups — the committee was making up rules, such as requiring competitors to wear gloves during events, as they went along — Goodman believed that the competition had the potential to grow into what it is today.
“There was some vision it could be as big as it is,” Goodman said.
Overall, Goodman is pleased with what the Operations Challenge has become, acknowledging the high level of preparedness and the smooth operation of the teams as they work through the various events.
“It is very pleasing to see the growth it has achieved,” Goodman said.
Aiming for a ‘Three-Peat’
Two-time defending champions, the TRA (Trinity River Authority; Texas) CReWSers, will be competing for their third consecutive Division I victory. The CReWSers represent the Water Environment Association (WEA) of Texas. They won the WEFTEC.06 competition in their home state, preceded by a WEFTEC.05 win in Washington, D.C.
The CReWSers are coached by Troy Pratt, and Dale Burrow serves as team captain. The team began practice for this year’s competition in August, despite having to deal with the notorious Texas summer heat.
“We [were] all dreading the Texas heat in our practice area,” Burrow said.
Although they return with their two-time championship roster intact — Burrow, Steve Price, David Brown, and Jake Burwell — the CReWSers still plan to tinker with their winning formula.
“We will have the same team as the last 2 years, but we will be switching people around to find a faster run this year,” Burrow said.
Burrow added that, in addition to the potential of winning a third straight title, the CReWSers are using the 20th edition of the Operations Challenge as motivation.
“Defending our title on home turf last year was a lot of pressure,” Burrow said. “We had our families and co-workers all there pushing for us, and we did not want to disappoint. But this year is more about wanting to win the 20th [edition] of Ops Challenge, since it is such a milestone.”
Challengers to the Trophy
The 2006 Operations Challenge runner-up, Team HRSD (Hampton Roads [Va.] Sanitation District) from the Virginia WEA, will be looking to overtake the CReWSers this year. Team members also began preparations for this year’s competition in August, and although team member Wesley Warren feels that Team HRSD is prepared for the five events, he says practice is still very important for preparation.
“What has hurt us in the past is the unexpected — the things that happen during your run at WEFTEC and sometimes the mental mistakes,” Warren said. “We like to have things go wrong at practice to prepare us.”
As for winning the 2007 Operations Challenge and knocking off the CReWSers, Warren is taking a positive approach. While he acknowledges the disappointment of not winning the past 2 years, Warren said that he will enjoy this year’s competition and have fun. However, if Team HRSD does defeat the CReWSers, Warren certainly won’t give back the trophy.
“I consider the guys from the CReWSers my friends and was glad to see them win,” Warren said. “But I hope to be the one to end their streak.”
If HRSD does take home the 2007 title, there will be no animosity from the CReWSers.
“We are going to run hard and clean to beat our best practice times,” Burrow said. “If another team does this better than us on game day, we will be the first to congratulate you and shake your hand at the awards ceremony.”
In Division II, Team Orange Crush from the Florida WEA is expecting to perform well, as are the Ascending Aerobes from the Rocky Mountain WEA. The Aerobes have already begun to turn heads despite their relative inexperience — only 2 years — at the Operations Challenge. In the 2006 competition, the San Antonio Power SAWS, like the CReWSers, won on their home turf.
Each team competing in the Operations Challenge is sponsored by a WEF member organization or a recognized operator association. Winners are determined by a weighted scoring system that assigns points for performance in five events: process control, maintenance, collections systems, safety, and laboratory. All five events are aimed at testing the diverse skills needed to effectively operate and maintain wastewater treatment facilities, their collection systems, and laboratories.
— Michael Bonsiewich, WE&T
2007 Operations Challenge Events List
Process Control Event. Teams must answer a number of multiple-choice questions, some short math questions with multiple-choice answers, and up to five operational type scenarios with four to six questions each that may require considerable calculations. The event is timed, with a maximum of 25 minutes allowed for completion. If a team completes the test before the end of the event, its actual time is recorded. The team can split up the test any way it chooses. The event should be viewed as an opportunity for a team to demonstrate its accumulated knowledge of wastewater treatment and skill in plant process control. This year, there have been significant changes to the scoring system: The highest score — not the lowest — wins the event, and time taken by a team will only be half as important as getting the answers correct.
Godwin Maintenance Event. This event will test the teams’ ability to respond to a pumping station outage through the routine maintenance and operation of an emergency backup pump. Teams will prepare a Godwin Pumps of America (Bridgeport, N.J.) Dri-Prime model CD100M diesel-driven solids-handling trailer-mounted pumpset for service at a disabled lift station. Tasks include removing, installing, and rebuilding various parts. Procedures are outlined in an operations and maintenance worksheet.
Collections Systems Event. Teams will remove a section of in-service 200-mm (8-in.) gravity polyvinyl chloride pipe, fabricate a replacement section with a 100-mm (4-in.) service saddle, and install the replacement section with flexible repair couplings. Teams also must install a Sigma 900 Max sampler, manufactured by Hach Co. (Loveland, Colo.). After completion, judges will evaluate the repair’s water-tightness.
Safety Event. Teams will respond to an unconscious colleague in a manhole. After testing the atmosphere and ventilating the confined space, they will assemble fall-protection equipment and descend from a Fibergrate Composite Structures (Dallas) training platform to retrieve the victim.
Laboratory Event. Teams must perform all steps of a biochemical oxygen demand analysis using WTW (Ingolstadt, Germany) Oxi 1970i dissolved-oxygen meters and WTW inoLab pH 7300 laboratory pH meters. Teams must follow all method requirements as outlined in Method 5210B of the 18th edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (with the exception of using transfer pipettes instead of wide-bore volumetrics for planting seed correction series and samples).
Operations Challenge 2007 Teams
The Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.) Operations Challenge Committee and participating Member Associations welcome the following teams to the 20th annual Operations Challenge in San Diego:
LRWU Connection (Arkansas WEA)
Canadian Cross Connection (British Columbia Water and Waste Association)
Folsom Breakout (California WEA)
L.A. Wrecking Crew (California WEA)
North Bay Ryders (California WEA)
SRCSD Interceptors (California WEA)
Pumpers (Central States WEA)
Shovelers (Central States WEA)
Lauderdale Knights (Florida WEA)
Orange Crush (Florida WEA)
Kauai Nitrifiers (Hawaii WEA)
Windy City Wizards (Illinois WEA)
Rowdy Rotifers (Indiana WEA)
Midland Microbes (Michigan WEA)
Reno/Sparks Rattlers (Nevada WEA)
Fecal Matters (New England WEA)
Force Maine (New England WEA)
Sewer Snakes (New England WEA)
Cape Shore Workers (New Jersey WEA)
Bowery Bay Bowl Busters (New York WEA)
Brown Tide (New York WEA)
Amoeba Bunch (Ohio WEA)
s.C.R.A.P.P.E.R.S. (Ohio WEA)
OCWA Jets (WEA of Ontario)
Sludge Hammers (WEA of Ontario)
River Rangers (Pacific Northwest Clean Water Association)
Toxic Force (Pacific Northwest Clean Water Association)
DELCORA Loonatics (Pennsylvania WEA)
Die-Jesters (Pennsylvania WEA)
Aurora’s Ascending Aerobes (Rocky Mountain WEA)
Commode Commandos (Rocky Mountain WEA)
Influents (WEA of South Carolina)
Aqua Techs (WEA of Texas)
Dillo XXPress (WEA of Texas)
Ft. Worth Regulators (WEA of Texas)
Power SAWS (WEA of Texas)
TRA CReWSers (WEA of Texas)
Famed Underwater Photographer to Speak at Opening General Session of WEFTEC®.07
David Doubilet will round out a dynamic lineup of speakers during the Opening General Session of WEFTEC®.07. Considered the world’s leading underwater photographer, Doubilet has introduced a generation of readers to the mysteries and wonders of the deep. Exploring remote atolls, barrier reefs, and exotic marine life, he has shot more than 60 stories for National Geographic and published numerous books. Celebrated worldwide, his photographs are prized as much for their scientific value as their aesthetic beauty and will be featured in his presentation, “Water Portraits From our Blue Planet.”
As the kick-off event of the conference, the Opening General Session program also will feature San Diego Mayor Jerry Sanders, 2007 Stockholm Water Prize Laureate and Stanford University Professor Dr. Perry L. McCarty, WEF President Mohamed Dahab, incoming WEF President Adam Zabinski, WEF award presentations, and the 2007 Stockholm Junior Water Prize winners.
This year’s Opening General Session will be held on Sunday, Oct. 14, from 4:30 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. in Ballrooms 20A, B, and C of the San Diego Convention Center.