WEF's membership newsletter covers current Federation activities, Member Association news, and items of concern to the water quality field. WEF Highlights is your source for the most up-to-the-minute WEF news and member information.

October 2011, Vol. 48, No. 8

Top Story

WEF Staff Member Works To Make a Difference
As advisor to Engineering Students Without Borders group, Barry Liner helps citizens in Peru access clean water
Liner-1 Small

Barry Liner’s commitment to improving access to clean water and proper sanitation goes far beyond his day job. Liner started as director of the Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) Water Science and Engineering Center last summer, before he went on a 2-week data-gathering trip for installation of a water storage system in San Isidro, Peru.

Coming to WEF from George Mason University (Fairfax, Va.), Liner maintains an appointment as director of International Engineering Programs in the university’s Department of Civil, Environmental, and Infrastructure Engineering. He also teaches one class as an adjunct professor every year and is faculty advisor for the university’s Engineering Students Without Borders group.

Engineering Students Without Borders was formed about 2 years ago with the mission of designing and implementing infrastructure projects in developing countries. The group identified the San Isidro, a village in the Peruvian Andes that is home to 150 residents, as the site of its first hands-on, real-world project, Liner said.  

Barry Liner (left) talks to the San Isidro, Peru plumber, Vicente Cruz about how to install a new water tank for the community. Photo courtesy of Joanna Vivanco. Click for larger image.

“Water is so important and is so undervalued,” Liner said. “We take it for granted.” But the group provides a valuable way to educate students about different cultures, the value of water, how to install real-world solutions that provide better water and sanitation to those who need it, and how water treatment works. “It brings the learning down to a smaller, more intimate level,” Liner said.

The residents of San Isidro, which is 3400 m (11,200 ft) above sea level, get their drinking, cooking, and cleaning water from glacial meltwater. The water comes out of the ground via a spring that is protected from contamination and then is delivered to residents through a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe system.

San Isidro’s community leaders explained that the amount of water delivered by the system was not enough to meet the needs of the entire community. “What they needed was storage so that it could fill overnight and then, when they use it during the day, it would draw from [that storage system],” Liner said. 

Liner-Group 2- Small
Liner-Group 1- Small
Above, Liner (in black) and Cruz (in green) discuss the designs for water tank installation. Left, the Engineering Students Without Borders group meet with San Isidro leaders to discuss the project before work begins. Photos courtesy of Vivanco and Jim Milliken. Click for larger images.

In August 2010, Liner and a student made an assessment trip, gathering data on the community’s irrigation canals and a 15,000-L (4000-gal) water storage tank that had sprung a leak 3 months after installation and could not store any water, Liner said.

During the past year, the students analyzed the data to determine if the tank could be repaired. Ultimately, they decided to replace the tank with a new 10,000-L (2640-gal) tank and devised a design for the new system. The group also raised money to fund the trip and purchase supplies.

Throughout the school year, students received assistance from Liner and professional mentors from the Prince William County (Va.) Service Authority and the Fairfax (Va.) County Department of Public Works and Environmental Services to perform the research, analysis, and design.

In June, the group traveled to San Isidro to install the new water storage system. The group included Liner; Joanna Vivanco, a professional from ECS Mid-Atlantic Inc. (Chantilly, Va.); Katty Overcash, a graduate student and an engineer at Prince William County Service Authority; and four undergraduate students — including Trevor Hughes, who worked as an intern at WEF this summer, and John Guenther, who is a WEF student member. 

Liner-Destruction 1 - Small

Upon the group’s arrival it became clear that the community would need another tank to meet daily demands, so the group members helped the community procure a second tank during their 2-week visit. Each of the two 10,000-L (2640-gal) plastic tanks is 3 m (9 ft) in diameter and 4 m (12 ft) high and weighs about 200 kg (450 lb). The tanks are designed to last 30 years with proper maintenance, Liner said.

At the community’s suggestion, instead of demolishing the old concrete tank, the group demolished only its roof and installed the first tank inside it. The old tank’s walls will provide shelter for the new tank, Liner said.

The group then used locally purchased gravel, cement, and sand to hand-mix concrete and pour a base for the new tank. A local plumber provided direction for installing the PVC piping to connect the tank to the water distribution system. With the help of more than 30 community volunteers, the group lifted and put the first tank in place and prepared a space for the second tank to be installed at a later time.  

Above, Engineering Students Without Borders group members Trevor Hughes (left), Sean O'Bannon (middle), and John Guenther (right) tear down the roof to the old water tank. Below left, group member Katty Overcash helps tear down the interior of the old water tank. Below right, two water tanks ready for installation. Photos courtesy of Vivanco and Milliken. Click for larger images.
Liner-Destruction 3 - Small Liner- Both Tanks-Small

The goal was to install a water storage system that would supply the entire community sustainably, which required flexible implementation, as well as cooperation with and education for the community, Liner said. “It was really important to involve the local community,” he said. “We helped them lead us.” 

Because community members were involved in installing the first tank, they will be able to install the second tank, handle maintenance requirements (such as installing protective coverings above both tanks and around the second tank), and complete any future repairs or replacements, Liner said. The group also explained about system costs and helped the community devise a plan to pay for maintenance, repairs, and replacements. 

Liner-Installation 1 - Small Liner-Installation 3 Small
Liner - Installation 4 Small
San Isidro community volunteers gathered to help install the first water tank. Above right, student group members Sean O'Bannon (left) and Katty Overcash (middle) help Cruz (right) connect the new tank to the water distribution system. Photos courtesy of Vivanco and Milliken. Click for larger images. 

“They know the distribution system, they know how the tanks are set up, and they know how to get the tanks in there, if they need to replace or expand,” Liner said. 

The first tank fills with water after installation. Photo courtesy of Milliken. Click for larger image
Liner-Final - Small

“This last trip was very successful,” Liner said. “[We] were able to provide something really worthwhile for them.” Results of the installation were seen immediately, he added. After the first tank was operational, a woman who was cooking dinner for the group was able to get water during the day, something she had never had been able to do before, Liner said.

And this is just the beginning. “We are currently evaluating new projects, working with the local community and the neighboring local community to determine what water supply, irrigation water, and sanitation projects that they may want,” Liner said. The group is looking into future projects in Honduras, Indonesia, and two different communities in Peru. 

— Jennifer Fulcher, WEF Highlights
Prepping the Pipeline
Programs help educate the next generation of operators

Thanks to a less-than-stellar economy, fears about the great “brain drain” within the wastewater treatment industry are not quite as strong as they were 10 years ago. Faced with a more precarious financial future, many wastewater treatment operators who are eligible for retirement have decided to put off leaving the field a bit longer. But eventually they will retire, and a few states and educational institutions have established training programs to help usher in the next generation of operators and fill these job vacancies.

Addressing a shortage
The Alaska Job Corps has offered a free water and wastewater operator training program since 1994.

“Trained water and wastewater operators have been identified by the U.S. Department of Labor as an industry in peril in the coming decade, both in Alaska and the lower 48 [states],” said Brad Ault, a former water/wastewater instructor at the Alaska Job Corps Center (Palmer) and a member of the Alaska Water Wastewater Management Association (Anchorage). “It is estimated that 48% of current operators in Alaska will be of retirement age in the next 4 years. The average age for certified operators in Alaska is 54.”

For this reason, the Anchorage Water and Wastewater Utility (AWWU) and the Alaska Job Corps Center collaborated 17 years ago to start the training program “in hopes of providing AWWU with a work pool of qualified candidates in the future,” Ault said.

Ault said the curriculum embraces four disciplines: water treatment, water distribution, wastewater collection, and wastewater treatment. According to the Alaska Job Corps website, there also are different training levels, such as

  • introduction to wastewater systems (hazardous waste operations and emergency response standard certification),
  • introduction to drinking water systems (small water-system operator certification),
  • water distribution operator (level 1),
  • wastewater collection operator (level 1),
  • water treatment operator (level 1), and
  • wastewater treatment operator (level 1).

The instructors use training manuals from the Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.) and American Water Works Association (Denver), but the Alaska Job Corps also has developed its own curriculum “to meet the needs of the served utilities,” Ault said.

The first year of the program takes place in a classroom, Ault explained. It is followed by approximately 2000 hours, or a year’s worth, of work-based learning at a utility in Alaska. Currently, approximately 10 utilities throughout Alaska participate in the program.

Often, the host utility does not pay the students’ salaries, Ault said. “The student is considered, for these purposes, an employee of the U.S. Department of Labor and is compensated through the Job Corps program,” he said.

Students must obtain either a high school or general education diploma to be eligible to sit for the state certification exams and officially become operators.

The utilities that regularly participate in the Alaska Job Corps water and wastewater operator training program have a majority of operators who are trained by the program, Ault said.

Craig Woolard, general manager at AWWU, said the utility’s experience with the program has been excellent.

“We get exposure to good employees and they get exposure to us,” Woolard said. Currently, 10 to 20 employees at AWWU were trained through the Job Corps program.

“When the job opportunities come along [the Job Corps students] often apply,” Woolard said. “An internship with us is not a guarantee that they will get full time employment here, but it definitely makes them a strong contender.”

An academic approach
Western Kentucky University (Bowling Green) instituted an online water and wastewater operator training/associate degree program 2 years ago, thanks to a grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation, said Jana Fattic, assistant director of the Center for Water Resource Studies at the university. The initial goal was to attract high school graduates who may be unfamiliar with the water and wastewater treatment industry.

“But as it turns out, it has attracted interest from not only recent high school graduates but those operators already in the industry,” Fattic said. “Existing operators are taking the courses because they know they can’t move up to management without a degree.”

This year, half of the new students are operators, and half are new to the industry.

The program includes 60 academic hours of coursework, Fattic explained, with 15 hours dedicated to general education; 21 hours focused on math, chemistry, and biology; and 25 hours involved in special concentration areas, such as water, wastewater, and utility management. Courses in these areas include “Water Supply and Wastewater Control,” “Intro to Wastewater Treatment Processes,” and “Water Chemistry.”

“What makes our courses different is that rather than have Ph.D.s teach the courses like at other colleges, we have working professionals with master’s degrees in the discipline teaching,” Fattic said. “[The students] get more of a real-world background.”

Training 1 Small
Western Kentucky University (Bowling Green) student James Woods works at the City of Franklin, Ky. wastewater treatment plant during the university’s internship program. Photo courtesy of Clinton Lewis, Western Kentucky University. Click for larger image.

The program also includes an on-the-job component. Students are required to intern at their local utilities.

“The university assists them in finding a utility that’s in their geographical area where they can intern,” Fattic said.

Western Kentucky University is trying to partner with community colleges across the United States that also would offer the program, Fattic said.

“Right now, we’re partnering with a West Virginia community college,” Fattic said. “We’re providing the online courses, but the degree will be [offered] through their community college.” The general education courses can be taken at the students’ respective community colleges.

Fattic said the university also is considering eventually adding a lab technician track, a stormwater track, and a water security track to the program.

“Currently, students can go from the associate degree program to get a [bachelor’s] degree in technology management,” Fattic said. A university committee is trying to determine whether the new tracks should be associate degrees or a new bachelor’s degree program.

Training 2 Small
So far, one student has successfully completed the associate degree program. Three more are slated to graduate after the fall semester.

“The previous graduate was able to gain full-time employment at the utility where he interned,” Fattic said. “Two of the [upcoming graduates] are currently operators. The other graduate has never worked in the industry before, so he will have to take the state certification test.”

The university also offers an online certificate program in water and wastewater management for those who may not want to obtain a degree but still want to further their education in the field, Fattic said. To receive the certificate, students must complete 25 credits.  
Student James Woods takes a measurement in one of the four main treatment basins at the City of Franklin, Ky. wastewater treatment plant during Western Kentucky University’s internship program. Photo courtesy of Clinton Lewis, Western Kentucky University. Click for larger image. 
— LaShell Stratton‒Childers, WEF Highlights
Water Pollution Control Agency Recognized for Commitment to Environmental Stewardship

The Monterey (Calif.) Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) works year-round to demonstrate a commitment to environmental stewardship. Its wastewater treatment facilities have been designed to minimize odors and hydrogen sulfide emissions, and the agency has reduced electricity purchases by using process controls, cogeneration, and solar power generation. 

The agency, a member of the California Water Environment Association (CWEA; Oakland) and Water Environment Federation (Alexandria, Va.), was recognized for its efforts by receiving the 2011 Annual Clean Air Award in the Climate Change category. The Breathe California Central Coast (Salinas, Calif.) award recognizes programs, products, and protocols that reduce greenhouse gases, according to a Breathe California news release. The MRWPCA wastewater treatment and water-recycling facility also received recognition from CWEA in 2000 as the Best Large Treatment Plant in California and was runner-up for the same award in 2009.  

MRWPCA - SolarCitySmall
A solar panel array was installed at the Salinas (Calif.) Valley Reclamation Facility in 2009. Photo courtesy of Solar City (San Mateo, Calif.). Click for larger image.
MRWPCA -Award Small

The agency runs a 112,000-m3/d (29.6 mgd) treatment plant, 25 pump stations, 35 pressure-vacuum stations, a tertiary water-recycling facility, and 48 km (30 mi) of pipeline. It currently treats 75,700 m3/d (20 mgd) of wastewater generated by 250,000 people and annually recycles 60% of the incoming wastewater to provide high quality irrigation water for 4856 ha (12,000 ac) of farmland in northern Salinas Valley in partnership with the Monterey County Water Resources Agency, according to information on the MRWPCA website.

Generating energy from solar panels and methane harvesting
To reduce energy consumption, the agency uses photovoltaic panels and cogeneration for onsite power generation that together provide 9.4 million kWh/yr and have enabled the agency to reduce power grid demand by 80% to 90%, according to Brad Hagemann, MRWPCA assistant general manager.

In 2009, Solar City (San Mateo, Calif.), a solar energy provider, installed a solar panel array to generate electricity for the agency’s Salinas Valley Reclamation Facility. During the next 30 years, the facility is expected to produce 1.7 million kWh/yr, reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 27.6 million kg (60.8 million lb), reduce nitrogen oxide emissions by 20,895 kg (46,064 lb), cut sulfur oxide emissions by 5224 kg (11,516 lb), and provide 90% of the tertiary facility’s energy needs, reducing costs to growers who receive the recycled water for irrigation, Hagemann explained.  

Monterey (Calif.) Regional Water Pollution Control Agency (MRWPCA) assistant general manager Brad Hagemann (left) and director Dennis Allion hold the 2011 Annual Clean Air Award. Photo courtesy of Hagemann, MRWPCA. Click for larger image.

Using a cogeneration process, methane, produced as a byproduct of solids decomposition, is harvested as fuel to operate three internal-combustion generators. In 2010, this prevented the emission of 73 million m3 of methane. In addition to preventing the release of methane into the atmosphere, 95% of the methane produced generates power for use onsite. Excess energy is sent to the power grid. The remaining 5% of the methane is flared, Hagemann said.

Using process controls to reduce energy consumption
To reduce the need for energy, the agency installed process controls. According to Hagemann, this included

  • managing dissolved-oxygen content in the bioflocculation basin to minimize air-blower use,
  • performing preventive-maintenance pump thermographic imaging of electric panels and rotating assemblies to ensure optimal motor and pump efficiency,
  • removing trickling filter air blowers and using natural ventilation to reduce energy consumption,
  • performing backwash of the recycle-water plant’s tertiary filters at night to minimize power consumption during peak energy demand, and
  • replacing digester-gas mixer pumps with more-efficient pumps that run intermittently, rather than continuously.  

The agency also installed power-conserving equipment, including heat exchangers that transfer heat from methane-fueled turbine generators to anaerobic digesters to maintain 36°C (97°F) for optimum methane production. The facility includes a boiler that utilizes methane and natural gas for supplemental digester heating in the winter. Also, variable-speed drives operate pumps at the pump stations and in key locations within the treatment plant. Low-wattage electronic ballast fluorescent lighting is installed in the treatment plant buildings, and the agency plans to install light-emitting diode fixtures in exterior facility lighting, Hagemann said.

Recycling wastewater for irrigation, providing community education, and reducing costs
The agency has recycled water for irrigation since 1998 and conducts water conservation outreach to schools through a fifth-grade educational program, as well as to the public through facility tours, exhibits at community events, and civic club presentations, Hagemann said.

The agency’s energy conservation and generation have resulted in measurable cost savings for customers. The energy conservation program has allowed the agency to minimize rate increases for customers. During the past 10 years, utility costs have only increased 1.9% per year on average. Also, the agency’s residential sewage fees are among the lowest in California, at 38% less than the statewide average from other grant-funded facilities, Hagemann explained.  

 MRWPCA- Facility Small
MRWPCA uses solar panels and cogeneration for onsite power generation. Photo courtesy of Hagemann, MRWPCA. Click for larger image.
— Jennifer Fulcher, WEF Highlights
Energy and Water 2011 Conference Generates Enthusiastic Discussion

Professionals and academics from the energy, water, and wastewater industries gathered at Energy and Water 2011: Efficiency, Generation, Management, and Climate Impacts, sponsored by the Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.), to learn more about the relationship between energy and water and discuss opportunities to better utilize both resources.

Approximately 370 professionals attended the conference, which was held in Chicago, July 31–Aug. 3, and featured three workshops, 20 technical sessions, a table-top exhibition, and an opening general session with keynote speaker Patrick Lucey, senior aquatic ecologist at Aqua-Tex Scientific Consulting Ltd. (Kimberly, British Columbia).

During the opening general session Lucey shared his insights about the self-funding capability of integrated resource management, focusing on the challenges of integrating water, wastewater, energy, and solid waste into a holistic resource-management system for various municipal, residential, and industrial operations.

“This conference offered a unique demonstration of the commitment of two crucial municipal sectors [water and energy,] to address the urgent need for a new design framework for strategic municipal infrastructure and its asset management,” Lucey said. “There was broad agreement that this new framework must be based upon a ‘design with nature’ approach that will lead to a closed-loop, resource-recovery, and revenue-generating system that will provide significant taxpayer relief and enhanced energy and water security whilst yielding significant GHG [greenhouse gas] emission reductions.”

Attendees also participated in technical presentations and open discussions examining research, design approaches, strategies, and operational issues related to the energy‒water nexus and identified ways to increase energy efficiency in the water and wastewater sectors. Specific topics covered included the need for collaborative efforts to meet water demands by the electric power industry, the latest research in generating biofuels from algae, advances in biogas production from wastewater solids, microhydropower, adoption of best practices in energy conservation at treatment plants, and the pursuit of a multiorganizational approach to integrate water and energy policy initiatives.

Representatives from several utilities, including the East Bay Municipal Utility District in Oakland, Calif., the Gloversville–Johnstown (N.Y.) Joint Wastewater Treatment Plant, and the Strass (Austria) Wastewater Treatment Plant, shared plans for using self-generated energy for their operations and returning any surplus to the grid.

“Municipal water and wastewater treatment systems are among the most energy-intensive facilities but have excellent potential to be net energy producers,” said WEF Executive Director Jeff Eger. “In fact, it is through its use of energy that the water sector has its greatest opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate a major source of climate change.”

In addition, conference sponsor Imagine H2O (San Francisco) presented its second annual Water‒Energy Nexus Prize at the conference. The prize was awarded to the winner, Hydrovolts (Seattle), for its new hydropower technology that taps renewable energy from water currents in canals and channels around the world, and to the runner-up, BlackGold Biofuels (Philadelphia), for its patented system that converts fats, oils, and greases found in sewer systems into biodiesel. Other conference sponsors include the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Consortium for Energy Efficiency, Alliance to Save Energy, Central States Water Environment Association, Illinois Water Environment Association, Water Environment Research Foundation, and Alliance for Water Efficiency.

“The WEF conference was a great opportunity to present the winners of our 2010 prize to industry players that are looking to advance the water and energy sectors,” said prize manager and Imagine H2O fellow Kate Gasner. “This community puts a premium on implementation of innovative solutions, so highlighting water innovation at this event held great significance for our winning companies.”

Energy efficiency has become a key focus area for WEF, so in addition to this conference, WEF is developing a position statement that will call for energy generated from water and wastewater treatment plants to be recognized as green energy for future policy discussions. Several energy-related technical sessions and workshops will be featured at WEFTEC® 2011, which is being held this month in Los Angeles. See the Energy Efficiency Access Water Knowledge Web page for more information.

— Jennifer Fulcher, WEF Highlights
WEF MOP Series: Analyzing Overflows and Providing Guidance on Reducing or Eliminating Overflows in MOP FD-17
MOP FD-17 Small

The Water Environment Federation (WEF; Alexandria, Va.) has updated its Manual of Practice (MOP) that provides information for understanding and analyzing overflow problems and offers guidance on finding the most efficient, feasible, and cost-effective strategies to reduce or eliminate overflows. Prevention and Control of Sewer System Overflows, MOP FD-17, Third Edition,updates the second edition, which was released in 1999.

“The intent of this manual was to provide a much more complete picture of what the mechanisms and drivers are for overflows of any sort, how you can identify them, and ways you can help control them,” said Eric Harold, task force chair for the MOP and principal environmental engineer at Malcolm Pirnie Inc. (White Plains, N.Y.).

Click for larger images.

Harold and task force vice chair Sean FitzGerald, senior associate at Hazen and Sawyer (New York), worked together to ensure that the new edition contains the most up-to-date information on developing plans to control overflows, as well as the latest technology and tools available.

This edition also includes more information on operations and maintenance practices; sanitary sewers, a topic largely absent in previous versions; technology and tools available to control overflows; and regulations for sewer systems.

“Tools that are available to gather and review data have come light years since the last manual [was published],” FitzGerald said. Industry changes reflected in the new edition include an increased focus on data management, geographic information systems, and asset management. The manual also features a strong modeling section that reflects current best practices in hydraulic modeling, FitzGerald said.

The MOP also provides “a really nice update of the overall regulatory picture,” Harold said. A chapter is devoted to approaches for implementing combined sewer overflows regulations and negotiating with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as a discussion of the rules and regulations regarding sanitary sewers.

The authors’ discussion of control plan development in the manual expands on traditional approaches to overflow management, detailing adaptive approaches and watershed approaches, rather than only the traditional end-of-pipe solutions, Harold said. “There is better description of things like real-time control, ... green infrastructure, and new evolutions in source control,” Harold said. The MOP details approaches that are not new but are becoming more widely applied, he said.

MOP FD-17 describes a variety of ways to control overflows, offering flexible solutions to a wide range of audiences, FitzGerald said. “It’s not going to get you to a detailed design, but it will help [you] step through the planning process,” he said. “I think the biggest value is for utility managers who are starting to tackle this problem, but it has significant use for almost any level.” Engineers can use the manual to find best practices or details on technologies available.

“[It’s] just a good primer on different concepts and terms for this type of work,” Harold said. The manual also cites other manuals and directs readers where to go for more information, FitzGerald said.

Authors contributing to the MOP participated in a competitive interview process and were chosen based on their expertise and experience in the field, Harold said. “You’ve got the actual experience of the folks who are dealing with this on a day-to-day basis,” he said.

FitzGerald added that they also wanted to find new names for the publication. “We wanted to try to bring in people who weren’t the usual names you see on a lot of other MOPs, and I think we did a pretty good job on that,” he said. The MOP also goes through a rigorous peer review to help ensure that the content describes best practices in the industry.

“This truly is the next evolution in this manual, in terms of structure and content,” Harold said. The manual now is up-to-date and includes information that can be used by a wide variety of professionals, from managers to entry-level engineers. It is “a good source to get the state of the practice of overflow control,” Harold said.

— Jennifer Fulcher, WEF Highlights
NOAA Website Provides Real-Time Information From Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy Systems

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System (CBIBS) is a network of observing platforms, or buoys, that collect meteorological, oceanographic, and water quality data.

Now, anyone — from scientists to boaters to students — who wants to access this up-to-date information can do so through a more user-friendly website. The site, www.buoybay.noaa.gov, features not only a new look but also streamlined navigation, the ability to bookmark individual buoys’ data pages, a frequently updated Buoy News area informing page visitors about the systems, and a Featured User section highlighting how people around the watershed use information from CBIBS. Data download and graphing sections have been revamped, providing more options for exploring CBIBS data, according to the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office.

In addition, information can be accessed by calling (877) BUOY BAY, or (877) 286-9229, accessing the mobile version of the website at www.buoybay.noaa.gov/m, using the free mobile applications available for Android and iPhone smartphones, or viewing the CBIBS Facebook page.  

Buoy Small
Photo courtesy of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Chesapeake Bay Office. Click for larger image.